Rosemont, Ill. – Earlier today, Washington Redskins’ quarterback Robert Griffin III underwent surgery on his right knee to repair a lateral collateral ligament(LCL) and anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) – both common injuries for professional athletes as well as individuals participating in general fitness activities.
With millions of Americans embarking on New Year’s fitness regiments, how do you get and stay in shape without risking an ACLor other injury of the knee?
Thekneehas four main ligaments, including the ACL, which connect the femur (upper leg bone) to the tibia (lower leg bone). While the ACL can rupture or tear due to a direct blow to the knee, more than 70 percent of these injuries do not involve contact at all, and can occur from a simple misstep. Often these injuries happen when the athlete lands in a flat-footed position, sometimes when decelerating too quickly, while the knee is straight. Women, who have unique knee characteristics, are three times more likely to suffer an ACL injury.
Several specific training programs are recommended for reducing ACL and ligament injury risk. They include:
- Plyometric training, which focuses on rapid, powerful movements that lengthen, and then shorten, certain muscles.
- Balance training, which typically involves the use of wobble or balance boards, or throwing and catching a ball while standing on one leg.
- Strength and stability training focuses on the appropriate way to land from a jump, and how the body should react to a sudden change in speed or direction. These exercises, which may include jumping and landing on one leg with the knee flexed and then momentarily holding that position, are designed to strengthen the muscles that affect the ACL, such as the core, gluteal, quadriceps and hamstring muscles.
According to a literature review in the January 2013 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons(JAAOS), female athletes, because of their high risk for injury, should learn and continue appropriate strength and stability training to prevent ACL injuries.
ACL injury prevention tips include:
Practice Landing and Changing Direction Safely. Always keep your knees directly over your feet when jumping, landing, stopping or moving quickly. Practice jumping and landing safely and softly with your knees bent, your chest pushed forward and your buttocks pushed back.
Strengthening Muscles. Strengthening your hip and thigh muscle can improve knee support and prevent ligament injuries. Exercises to build hip and thigh muscles include squats and lunges or the use of rubber band-type equipment.
Warming Up and Stretching Before Exercising.Warm up to prepare to exercise, even before stretching. Run in place for a few minutes, breathe slowly and deeply, or gently rehearse the motions of the exercise to follow. Warming up increases your heart and blood flow rates and loosens up other muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints. Begin stretches slowly and carefully until reaching a point of muscle tension. Hold each stretch for 10 to 20 seconds, then slowly and carefully release it. Do each stretch only once. Never stretch to the point of pain, always maintain control, and never bounce on a muscle that is fully stretched.
- Using Proper Equipment.Replace your athletic shoes as they wear out.
For a detailed drawing of the knee anatomy, visit http://newsroom.aaos.org/media-resources/image-library/.
A Nation in MotionMore than one in four Americans have bone or joint health problems, making them the greatest cause of lost work days in the U.S. When orthopaedic surgeons restore mobility and reduce pain, they help people get back to work and to independent, productive lives. Orthopaedic surgeons provide the best value in American medicine in both human and economic terms and access to high-quality orthopaedic care keeps this “Nation in Motion.” To learn more, to read hundreds of patient stories or to submit your own story, visit anationinmotion.org
About the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons